17 November 2019

Graduate School, Round 3 . . .


In the above picture, I am video chatting on Zoom with 15 members of my newest graduate cohort. I am in my third graduate program . . . This time for education through Teach-Now, an online graduate program that specializes in teacher certification. I am about half way through my program, expected to graduate in May of 2020. My degree will be a Master's in Education combining Teacher Preparation with a Globalization in Education Focus. Each week we meet on Monday nights and have class. We come from all over the world, with the bulk of us teaching in China and Korea.

We've never met in person, but I love my cohort! We have WeChat groups and WhatsApp groups and talk to each other almost daily. Every week we have homework--sometimes as many as three assignments that are due. And each assignment has numerous parts and sometimes includes collaboration between us. So, this program takes coordination and dedication and a fair amount of lonely nights editing videos and writing blogposts. That's the other thing: and maybe my most favorite part . . . All of our assignments are submitted using the newest programs, apps, or technology. We can turn assignments via Snapchat feed or Instagram stories or by making videos or writing blogs. It's super cool.



It is not lost on many, and especially not lost on me (or my bank account), that I like to be in school. However, my educational path is wiggly--at best--and unique. I often look at my relationship with education as if it were a marriage: some years were amazing and some years, it was a massive struggle . . .

I remember in high school, when everyone was applying to schools, that I was hellbent on attending Texas Tech in Lubbock. I heard that they had an incredible design department. My hope (at the time) was to be an interior designer. I took drafting classes--and was the only female doing so--all throughout high school. So, it seemed like the perfect fit. I had only ever driven through Lubbock, and never actually made it to visit the school.

I don't remember my parents taking me around to look at schools much. I think it was just hard to organize with my dad living in New Jersey and my mom being a full-time teacher in Plano, Texas. But I do remember my dad taking me on a road trip to visit Stephen F. Austin State University. It was small and in the woods. Seemed nice, but not for me. He also took me to visit a school in New Jersey.  I went down to visit Texas A *and* M with friends, and liked it very much. But it still didn't seem like the right fit. If I had it all to do over again, I would've taken 5 years between high school and college to make this kind of decision . . . But in the early 90's the idea of taking a gap year (or years) was not an acceptable thing to do.

As it was, I ended up at Collin County Community College in Plano. At the time, we called Quad C. I did not like that I had to live at home, and work full-time and try to keep up with my classes. But it was the first place that I fell in love with art and the arts community, and for that I will forever be grateful. Still to this day, I think of my photography teacher at Quad C: Byrd Williams. He was so passionate about taking pictures and really taught me how to see things.

From Collin County Community College, I transferred into The University of Texas at Austin. (Finally, I had found my people! My tribe!) By the grace of God, I was accepted to The University of Texas at Austin and never really looked back. I declared my major as ART and straddled a full-time load of classes between UT Austin and Austin Community College. This was around 1995. I have Liza Donatelli (my roommate at the time), Shane Sullivan (my academic advisor), and Susan Clagett (my parent's college buddy and the Vice President of Administration and Public Affairs at UT) to thank for their support in my application to and success during those first several years at UT.

About 4 years into my degree at UT, I got very excited and impatient about being out in the world. I was going to be an artist, after all. Once I left school, white-walled galleries would open up their spaces to me and I would show my work and receive the creative acclaim that I desired. (It doesn't really work this way, folks.) But, my impatience got the best of me.

My father started pressuring me around 1999 to graduate. But I just wanted to keep taking art classes. I was like a SPONGE! Completely engrossed in contemporary art history classes that were standing room only, obsessed with clay and photography, and staying in the painting studio until 2 or 3 in the morning. It was the greatest, most creative, time of my life! And I did not want it to stop . . . But I ended up leaving school.


After I left school, I had a variety of jobs. I coordinated weddings, painted people's bedrooms, weeded yards, painted wooden shoes, taught art at various museums and in after school programs, started art teaching studios at several YMCA's, and worked as an installer in galleries. I made a lot of art, but could barely (if at all) make ends meet. In 2003, I started a teaching studio in my house that I ran for about 5 years in both Tennessee and Wisconsin. I taught homeschoolers, adults, ran birthday parties, and taught after school programs for all ages of young people. Nothing teaches you more about being a teacher than teaching. And this is when I realized that teaching was something I really wanted to do. But I wanted to teach art because I wanted to teach young people everywhere that art should not be taken for granted and, if focus was involved, art could change people's lives.


I ended up going back to school at The University of Texas in Austin in the spring of 2007. When I reapplied to school, my academic advisor (from all of those many years before), Shane, told me that this was my last chance to get it right. So, with the help of my boyfriend at the time, I worked really hard and ended up graduating with honors. I met so many new and wonderful young people when I went back to school. I was as old as molasses, but loved being around all of these creative, young, and inspiring people. I am happy to say that I am still very close to these same people I met during this time. And, the professors I had blew my mind. It takes a while for all of that information in those formative college years to really sink in, but that second time around in my undergraduate program changed my life forever.



I found a new source for my passion and soaked up every bit of information that my professors were feeding me. I took an amazing class on gems and gemstones and learned how to facet a diamond. I took a class about the environment and became so incredibly obsessed with recycling that when I got rid of a couch we had, my boyfriend and I stripped the entire thing down and recycled every ounce of that couch. I met Margaret Meehan who taught me so much about contemporary art that I honestly didn't think my brain could possibly hold anymore information. And, I ended up doing a study abroad program in Italy and had the time of my life rummaging through Rome and Venice and Florence. 




Going back to school was incredible, and something I never for a second thought I would ever get the chance to do. I've never regretted the path that I took to obtain my undergraduate degree in studio art. Everyone takes their own time to get places. And once I realized I could get my undergraduate finished, I didn't stop there. 

I immediately applied to MICA and was accepted to their 14-month Community Arts MA program (it has now been turned into an MFA program). I don't think I have ever been stretched and pulled and worked so hard in all my life. But, it was also a blast. I learned how to sew and teach and write lesson plans. I planned huge events that involved lots of people and wrote long, heartfelt poetry. I gave presentations on the fly and met all different kinds of people who were creative and passionate and changing their communities (and the world). 






Two years after I graduated from my Community Arts program, I found my first overseas teaching position. I started working in Singapore in 2012, and by 2013, I had enrolled in an MFA in Studio Arts program back at MICA. The Studio Art program was a 4-year, summer intensive. My cohort and I spent every summer in Baltimore creating all sorts of artwork. We wrote papers in the fall and spring semesters, and visited MICA every winter during MLK week to critique the artwork we were making during the months that we were not on campus during the summer months. During the summer, we made things, attended lectures, learned how to be professional artists, and critiqued each other hard. But it was incredibly fun! I now look back on those four years as "adult art camp". We danced a lot, talked a lot, and created friendships that last a lifetime. I graduated with my MFA in August of 2016, just after my first and last year teaching in Qatar. 




For a second, after I graduated my MFA program, I enrolled in an Art Education PhD program in Florida. But, I could tell right away, that it was not the time for me to do this. It was a 6-year program and I was not ready to make that kind of commitment. I didn't feel like I connected with the program like I had hoped, and I was not happy teaching in the United States. It was too hard to work full-time and try to attend my classes and do the work I was expected to do. So, by 2018, I found myself back overseas and teaching in China. And by May of 2019, I had enrolled in my current program, an MEd focused on Globalization in Education. 


Here are some of the video projects I have completed for various assignments in my current program . . . 





I am still in the teacher preparation part of my graduate program. The Globalization in Education part starts in February. But I am loving all of the new things I am learning about how to be a teacher and how to truly get my students to be the very best versions of themselves that they can be. And I love that I now have contacts and collaborators all over the world--literally all over the world!! I can't shake school, you guys. It is a privilege that I am able to do this . . . Of course, it gets in the way of me doing other things. Like having a family and saving monies. But there is something so worthwhile about new experiences and meeting new people and learning new things! I am so very grateful for this life of academics and travel and fun that I have created for myself. So. Very. Grateful.  


I can't wait to see what's next!!! More soon . . . XOXO!

07 September 2019

TEACH-NOW . . . Module 5, Week 4, Activity 1: Pre-Assessment for Differentiation


Subject Area: ART

Grade Level: Bilingual Grade 5

Brief Context: Students will be looking at Joan Mir贸 paintings and sculptures and creating artwork in his style. Joan Mir贸 was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona. Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, and a manifestation of Catalan pride. 



My pre-assessments start with discussion. I share with the students a PowerPoint, video, or example of an artwork and start peppering them with questions. I like to use Visual Thinking Strategy questions like:
  • What’s going on in this picture?
  • What makes you say that?
  • What else can we find?

I have relatively small classes (between 5 and 15 students per grade), and I have a translator. So, with discussions, the students are sometimes popcorn-ing out various answers and lots of the time in Chinese. I don’t speak Chinese, so my translator tells me what the students are saying. Often times, new questions arise, so we take the conversation in that direction.

There is no right or wrong answer with art, and there is no need for the students to speak in English, so all of our discussions are equal opportunity investments and learning platforms. We all have opinions and different values, and the students bring all of that into our discussions. The differentiation comes in the form of allowing the students to speak their own language. I give a lot of freedom in my classroom for the students to feel comfortable saying or sharing whatever they want (in terms of our discussions around art and process).


My pre-assessment for our Joan Mir贸 project will be designed around surrealism. This will help me understand if my students have ever seen any surrealist artworks before (Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali, Frida Kahlo, etc.). I will have A4 size laminated prints made of various artworks and symbols. I will have the students spend time discussing the works and symbols with each other, placing stickers on which ones they’ve seen before (in books, online, on a shower curtain, etc.) and then vote on which ones they like the best.

Different colored dot stickers will be used for different categories, such as:
  • If you have seen one of the artworks before, place a yellow dot on it. 
  • If you have seen one of the symbols before, place a green dot on it.
  • If you have heard of Mir贸 or surrealism before, place a red dot on your shirt.

Once the students have placed their dots, we will divide the students into groups based on where their dots landed and have a brief discussion. This entire activity should take no more than 20 minutes to decipher. This pre-assessment will be left hanging up throughout our entire unit so the students can go back and refer to the new artists they have learned about and self-assess their knowledge of surrealism, comparing it to where they were when the unit began.


The breakdown of the students and how this activity is designed does not fit my pre-assessment or subject matter. There is very little -- if any -- differentiation  in the Teach-Now assignments during this module, as they are ALL focused on core subject teachers. There are 2 music teachers, 2 PE teachers, and 1 art teacher in my co-hort. So, I am shifting this assignment to fit the needs of my ART classroom and not the needs of a core subject teacher’s classroom.

After the pre-assessment, the students will begin working on their artwork. A lot of the learning about an artwork, a movement, or an artist comes from doing the work: making the art itself. That means drawing, painting, and sculpting. Artists learn through their hands. So, the students will work for two class periods on their project, and then we will break for discussion and review. 


To create their artwork, the students will watch two videos and emulate the various aspects from each video. 

1. In the first video, the students will create a colorful tissue paper bleed background (the fact that this video is labeled for kindergarten makes no difference, the process is what is important).



2. In the second video, the students will draw the featured figures and shapes on top of their tissue paper bleed background. Understanding the figures and shapes are the most important part of knowing how Mir贸 worked and how surrealism played a part in his art making.


 

3. After the students have created their figures and shapes on top of the tissue paper bleed background, they will begin to paint in their shapes with acrylic paint in colors that they associate with surrealism and, specifically, Mir贸's artwork.

We will use the following differentiated strategies to assess where the learning is in the mid-point of the process, after the projects have begun and the students have had a chance to sit with their thoughts for a while.

Innovative Differentiated Strategies for 
Understanding Surrealism

1. The students who could define surrealism in our first round of sticker placement and discussion will use the following assessment to discuss various visual aspects related to the surrealist movement.

Carousel Brainstorm: Chart papers containing statements or issues for student consideration are posted around the classroom. Groups of students will brainstorm at one station and then rotate to the next position where they will add additional comments. When the carousel “stops” the original team prepares a summary and then presents their ideas to the larger group. A Carousel Brainstorm is an active, student-centered method to generate data about a group’s collective prior knowledge of a variety of issues associated with a single topic.

2. The students who have some knowledge on surrealism, but need to develop higher order thinking skills, will use the following assessment to discuss various visual aspects related to the surrealist movement. They will share back with the group and demonstrate where their understanding is now that the artmaking has begun.

Think - Ink - Pair - Share: A way to get students to reveal what they know or believe about a topic is to begin by having them commit their thoughts to writing. To assess what the group knows, the students discuss their ideas in pairs, and then share them with the larger group.

3. The students who appear to have limited knowledge of surrealism (3 of these students are struggling with English language acquisition and 2 need to be tested for special needs) will use the following assessment to put into words or visuals their knowledge of various visual aspects related to the surrealist movement.

KWL Charts- what does the student know? - what does the student need and want to know? L - what did the students learn? This is an effective pre-assessment tool and summative evaluation tool. The "L" can also be used the as part of an open-ended question on a test allowing the students to share the depth of knowledge that was gained in the unit of study.


As the project continues, and the students are working on their artmaking, I will go around and speak to the students individually to see where they are and what they might need help on. At the end of each class, I will have the students reflect on their art making and how they are doing with their project.


Project ends after 5 weeks with a group critique showcasing each student's work. Administrators and homeroom teachers are invited in to see the accomplishments of the students.


REFERENCES

Art Term: Surrealism. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/s/surrealism

ASCD Learn. Teach. Lead. (December 2013). Differentiation: It Starts with Pre-Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/dec13/vol71/num04/Differentiation@_It_Starts_with_Pre-Assessment.aspx

Crockett, H. (2014). 8 Ways to Collect Data in The Art Room. Retrieved from https://theartofeducation.edu/2013/03/20/8-ways-to-collect-data-in-the-art-room/

Differentiation & LR Information for SAD Teachers. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/lrtsas/differentiation/5-preassessment-ideas

Kindergarten Mir贸 Art. (April 17, 2018). Taylor Newman. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6ZvKL8vApg&feature=youtu.be

Joan Mir贸. (August 4, 2011). TateShots. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kipHAbR0zXU&feature=youtu.be

Joan Mir贸 – Surrealism. (June 28, 2016). Ramon Carrasco’s Art Vlogs. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lp63llZer-w&feature=youtu.be

23 August 2019

TEACH-NOW . . . Module 5, Week 2, Activity 1: Assessing Project Based Learning


Subject: ART 

Objectives - Students will create a mask out of recyclables and air-dry clay. In the process, they will learn about the causes of air pollution, brainstorm solutions, and learn how to use art as a tool for activism.

Grade Level Focus: Bilingual Year 7 and 8 students.
Length: 4 - 6 weeks, 2 hours per week 

Product to Be Delivered: A finished mask out of recyclables and air-dry clay, a presentation about air pollution with possible solutions.



21st Century skills to explore:

  • Problem solving – Students will research and track air quality in Nantong, China. Based on their findings, the students will problem solve ways the community can cut down on air polluting practices and brainstorm solutions to the air pollution crisis. 
  • Communication – Students will communicate in a variety of ways throughout this project. Students will communicate with each other as they are building their masks and working with and around each other. Students will communicate with the class during their presentation, relaying information and facilitating questions. Students will communicate with the community by displaying their masks in a formal gallery setting, including process photos and research findings. 
  • Critical thinking – Students will evaluate and analyze research findings on air pollution. Students will develop best practices for building mixed media sculpture. 
  • Creativity – Students will use creativity in a variety of ways during this project. Students will use creative problem-solving skills to create solutions for the air pollution crisis in China. Students will use creativity to build and make their masks out of recyclables. Students will use creativity to decide on how best to present their information to the class using tech-focused tools.

Overview

Air pollution is a major source of frustration and health concerns in various parts of the world. Air pollution has become a major issue in China and poses a threat to public health. In 2016, only 84 out of 338 major Chinese cities attained the national standard for air quality. Because I am living and working in China, I have chosen to focus my project on air pollution.



Provocation Questions:
  • What is pollution?
  • What comes to mind when you hear the word ‘pollution’?
  • What different forms of pollution do you know of?
  • How does pollution affect our health?
  • What kinds of things cause pollution?
  • How can we reduce pollution?
  • What can we do to increase the awareness of environmental pollution?
  • Describe how human activities affect the environment.

Content, Knowledge, and Skills

  • Principles
    • Hand Building with Clay
    • Mixed Media Sculpture
  • Examples
    • Images of Mixed Media Masks
  • Clay Methods and Techniques
    • Pinch
    • Coil
    • Slab
  • Working with Recyclables
    • Fixatives to Use: Glue, Duct Tape, etc.
    • Best practices When Combining Clay and Recyclables
    • Adding Color to The Finished Product
  • Tech Skills
    • Presentation Format Possibilities
  • Presentation Skills
    • Preparing A Presentation
    • Visual aids
    • Managing nerves and anxiety
    • Projection, Intonation, Emphasis and Pacing
    • Non-verbal Communication
    • Structuring
    • Passion and Enthusiasm.

Assessment: Students will be assessed on 5 criteria directly related to the art making process.

Craftsmanship – Student’s project is carefully planned from start to finish. The mask is built with integrity and strength in mind. You can tell what the piece is and that it will be used as some sort of mask. 

Creativity – St
udent’s design is unique and displays elements that are totally their own. Evidence of detail, pattern, or a unique combination of materials. 

Production/Effort – S
tudent uses class time efficiently and is always on task. Time and effort are evident in the execution of the piece.

Work Habits/Attitude – Student is respectful and open to positive suggestions. Cleans work area thoroughly.

Tech Use and Presentation – Student’s research is thoughtful and presented well. Student has used a tech-focused presentation to present information and facilitate questions.

Each criteria will be assessed in a different way.  

Craftsmanship - Teacher Reflection. Each week, I will reflect on student progress via short--but valuable--paragraphs kept on a Google Doc. Each class will have a separate document, all kept in one folder labeled with the project name. And each of these class docs will be used for reference when semester and final grades are called upon. In each of these Google Docs, I can upload images of student work, write out questions I have for each student, create ideas for feedback, and make decisions about future lessons.

Creativity - Student Reflection. Self-reflections provide students with opportunities to think deeply about their learning and artistic achievements (Douglas, K. and Jaquith, D. 2009). Mid-way through this project, I will have students take partial class time to write a reflection on their tablets or laptops. This reflection will focus on the following questions:
  1. Think about the mask that you are creating and describe it in 3 sentences.
  2. What is your favorite part of this project and why?
  3. Were you inspired by any of your classmates on this project, or any of the artists we have looked at so far this year? List 2 reasons why or why not.
  4. What has been challenging for you during this project? Do you feel more confident in your ability to overcome creative challenges? Why or why not?
  5. What would you like to get better at? How can that happen?

Production/Effort - Group Sharing Session. While working, students receive a variety of comments from their classmates. Most students value and appreciate constructive criticism. But learning to filter out or ignore unhelpful remarks is easier for some than others. When students come together for sharing sessions, it is a time for the class to give their full attention to their classmates. Every two weeks, students will gather and share about their mask making: focusing on technique, effort, ideas, and/or meaning. 

Work Habits/Attitude - Survey. As a way to see if the students are engaged in their project and enjoying the process, I will conduct a quick survey using sticky notes and questions. A large poster with a question on it will be presented to the students as they leave the art studio at the end of each class period. Using sticky notes, they will respond with questions or affirmations. The responses to each question will be collated and reviewed at the beginning of the next class. Questions might be:
  • Were you satisfied with your work ethic today? Is there anything you would have done differently?
  • How was your disposition and approach to your project today? 
  • Did you have enough space and materials to work with today? Is there something specific you might need before next class?

Tech Use and Presentation - Rubric. Teacher and student will collaborate on filling in the rubric after the student's final presentation. I will meet with each student for 10 - 15 minutes to discuss feedback and we will grade the final presentation together using the following rubric.




This amazing idea comes from an artist friend of mine teaching in Taiwan.

References

Douglas, K. M. and Jaquith, D. B. (2009) Engaging Learners Through Artmaking: Choice-Based Art Education in the Classroom. New York and London: Teachers College Press.

Incredible Art Department. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2019 from the https://www.incredibleart.org/.

Lee, M. @mizzzlee_art Instagram Feed. (October 24, 2018) Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BpUFFzYH8bV/?igshid=mr430ynjnp9q.

National Geographic. (2017, October 16). Air Pollution 101 [Video file]. Retrieved fromhttps://youtu.be/e6rglsLy1Ys

Pollution in China. (Last edited on 20 June 2019). Retrieved on June 21, 2019 Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution_in_China.

18 August 2019

TEACH-NOW . . . Module 5, Week 1, Activity 3: Data-based Modifications of Formative Assessments

Formative assessments are significant tools in any classroom, but they look quite different in the ART STUDIO. For me, formative assessments look like conversations between students, gallery walks, sketchbook journaling, one-on-one conversations between student and teacher, self-assessments, and ball tossing. It’s important for me that I find assessments that fit my teaching style, and it’s also essential that I not mess up the studio environment that has already been established by the students. 


I snagged the following paragraph from Wynita Harmonover at The Art of Education blog spot. I couldn’t have described my teaching and classroom culture better myself: 

“I personally teach from a Teaching for Artistic Behavior (TAB) point of view. The TAB website describes the learning environment by stating, “TAB classrooms are highly structured environments. Students scaffold their own learning, sometimes going deeply into specific subjects or media. They work at their own pace, following their own lines of inquiry, and develop skills as they need them.””

Essentially, the my art classroom is student-centered, enthusiastic, and the kiddos act and work as studio artists. This fits in well with my COMMUNITY and COLLABORATIVE norms and procedures. And creates individual thinkers who act and work like a TEAM, which really contributes to the idea of FLOW.

I teach skills and techniques, vocabulary and history daily. But not in the form of tests or projects or through books. I teach vocabulary through modeling how to talk about artwork. I teach history when it’s relevant to something contemporary that we are looking at (I don’t want the students thinking that the only important artists are the dead ones). And I teach skills and techniques based on individual projects and what each student needs. Of course, all of these things vary based on the age of students I am working with. But for the most part, all of my students Nursery – Grade 8 are creating work in this vein.


I teach in an IB PYP school. So I collaborate with homeroom teachers, other specialists, and I follow the Unit of Inquiry when it’s authentic to what my students are inquiring about. I modify my teaching and assessments daily, almost to the minute, really. I honestly try and focus everything I do with my teaching on my conversations with the students and what they feel like doing on any particular day. It took a long while for me to figure this out . . . But when the students are the facilitators of their own learning, they challenge themselves to do things they never thought they could do. I’m just kind of there to guide them along and assess as I need to.  


As a bonus, below are some arts-based assessments that could work for a variety of classrooms. I really love the examples given with each assessment, especially the Beach Ball and 3-2-1. This list was created from a more comprehensive list by Sarah Dougherty, also from The Art of Education University.
      
1. Conga Line – a great way to share ideas with different partners; two lines of students face each other, one line moves with same question or a new one.

2. Inner/Outer Circle – same as Conga Line except with circles, better for limited spaces

3. Pair-Share – activates prior knowledge or shares learned concepts with partners, can be timed

4. Jigsaw/Experts in Residence – each group becomes an expert on a certain part of the lesson, then debriefs the whole group

5. 3-2-1– good closer: three points to remember, two things you liked, one question you still have.

6. Quick Write/Draw — Given a topic, students write and/or draw freely during a timed period (I DO THIS ONE A LOT!!)

7. Gallery Walk – stations with information, participants can write on post-its or directly on the poster with thoughts, comments, or questions

8. Think-Write-Share – Same as pair-share, but gives students more time to organize their thoughts

9. Beach Ball – Concepts are written on a beach ball. As a student catches it, they give a thought or clarify the concept closest to one of their thumbs

10. SOS — Students write a quick Statement, an Opinion based on the statement, and finally a Supporting piece of factual evidence.

11. Poll the Class — Use a simple show of hands, white boards, or even a clicker program, poll the class on foundational knowledge, opinions, or even where they are in their learning.

12. Grade Yourself — Have students give themselves an in-progress grade, then explain why their work is earning that grade. Give them explicit standards and relevant vocab to use in their explanation.


References:

Arts Achieve Impacting Student Success. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.artsachieve.org/formative-assessment

Dougherty, S. (n.d.) 20 Quick Formative Assessments You Can Use TODAY. [Blogpost].Retrieved from https://theartofeducation.edu/2013/10/18/20-quick-formative-assessments-you-can-use-today/

Harmon, W. (n.d.) 6 Strategies for Fast and Formative Assessments. [Blogpost]. Retrieved from https://theartofeducation.edu/2019/01/18/6-strategies-for-fast-and-formative-assessments/

TAB Teaching for Artistic Behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://teachingforartisticbehavior.org/what-is-tab.html

Visual Thinking Strategies. (n.d.). Retrieved 
       from https://vtshome.org/

Visual Thinking Strategies – The Three Simple Questions. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://emprobstvts.weebly.com/vts-the-three-simple-questions.html